Old-age pensions

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Old-age pensions

The left-hand menu contain two example graphs that exhibit two aspects of pension systems: replacement rate and coverage of pension insurance.


  • The standard benefit refers to benefit received by the typical case of the Standard Worker with an Average production worker wage (APWW). Minimum benefits reflect conditions in the major schemes where average production workers are included.


  • Coverage refers to the proportion of a reference population that is covered by an insurance during a specific point in time (day, week or average during the year). It is calculated as the the number of insured persons (variable 1) divided by the reference population (variable 2).

The complete dataset on old-age pensions with documentation and variable list can be found in the Social Insurance Entitlements dataset.

Recent publications

Arlotti, M. & Sabatinelli, S. (2017). Assessing income support where no national minimum income scheme exists. Is it possible to apply the model family method to the Italian case? International Review of Sociology, 27:1, 142-159.


Birnbaum, S., Ferrarini, T., Nelson, K. & Palme, J. (2017). The Generational Welfare Contract: Justice, Institutions and Outcomes. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.